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Koronawirusy o niskiej i wysokiej patogenności, zakażające człowieka

Low and highly pathogenic coronaviruses infecting humans

Barbara Zawilińska, Sława Szostek

Zakład Wirusologii, Katedra Mikrobiologii, Wydział Lekarski Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego – Collegium Medicum
w Krakowie

Barbara Zawilińska
Zakład Wirusologii,
Katedra Mikrobiologii,
Wydział Lekarski Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego
– Collegium Medicum,
ul. Czysta 18, 31-121 Kraków,
Tel.: 12 634 54 00

Wpłynęło: 22.02.2020 \ Zaakceptowano: 23.03.2020 \ Opublikowano on-line: 23.03.2020

Cytowanie / Citation

Zawilińska B, Szostek S. Koronawirusy o niskiej i wysokiej patogenności, zakażające człowieka.
Zakażenia XXI wieku 2020;3(1):7-16
doi: 10.31350/zakazenia/2020/1/Z2020006

Wersja elektroniczna / Article ePDF

Streszczenie:
W pracy przedstawiono charakterystykę siedmiu ludzkich koronawirusów. Cztery z nich, o niskiej patogenności, tj. HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-HKU1, odpowiadają za sezonowe, zwykle łagodnie przebiegające zakażenia dróg oddechowych. Wiek XXI zaskoczył nas nagłym pojawieniem się trzech kolejnych koronawirusów, tym razem wysoce patogennych: SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV a ostatnio SARS-CoV-2, odpowiedzialnych za ciężkie zakażenia dolnych dróg oddechowych. Pierwotnym rezerwuarem tych koronawirusów są nietoperze, natomiast na skutek zmian genetycznych i przełamania barier gatunkowych doszło do ich pełnej adaptacji do organizmu człowieka. Ze względu na brak możliwości leczenia przeciwwirusowego i skutecznej immunoprofilaktyki każde pojawienie się nowego koronawirusa stanowiło ogólnoświatowe zagrożenie dla bezpieczeństwa zdrowia publicznego. Ostatni z nich, SARS-CoV-2, pojawił się w Chinach pod koniec 2019 roku i w ciągu niespełna trzech miesięcy opanował aż 138 krajów na całym świecie, powodując ponad 145 tysięcy zachorowań i ponad 5000 przypadków śmiertelnych. Mimo zastosowania rygorystycznych środków zapobiegawczych pandemia w dalszym ciągu się rozszerza. W pracy porównano cechy charakterystyczne dla niepandemicznych i pandemicznych gatunków koronawirusów, uwzględniając ich epidemiologię i potencjał chorobotwórczy.

Słowa kluczowe: ludzkie koronawirusy, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19

Abstract:
The paper presents the characteristics of seven human coronaviruses. Four of them, with low pathogenicity, i.e. HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-HKU1 are responsible for seasonal, usually mild respiratory infections. The 21st century surprised us with the sudden appearance of three more coronaviruses, this time highly pathogenic: SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and more recently SARS-CoV-2, responsible for severe lower respiratory tract infections. For all of them, bats are the primary reservoir, and due to genetic changes and overcoming species barriers, they have been fully adapted to humans. Each emergence of a new coronavirus, due to the lack of antiviral treatment and effective immunoprophylaxis, posed a global threat to health issue. The last one of them – SARS-CoV-2, which appeared in China at the end of 2019, in less than three months reached as many as 138 countries around the world, causing over 145 thousand cases and over 5000 deaths. Despite the application of strict preventive measures, the pandemic continues to expand. The characteristics of non-pandemic and pandemic coronavirus species have been compared, taking into account their epidemiology and pathogenic potential.

Key words: human coronaviruses, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19

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Konflikt interesów: nie zgłoszono.
Potential conflicts of interest: no conflicts.

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