Infections of the 21st century (Zakażenia XXI wieku)

Issue 1, 2019

Przestrzeganie zaleceń w chorobach przewlekłych na przykładzie leczenia mesalazyną w nieswoistych zapalnych chorobach jelit

Compliance with recommendations in chronic diseases on the example of mesalazine treatment in non-specific inflammatory bowel diseases

Grażyna Rydzewska

Zakażenia XXI wieku 2019;2(1):1–5.

Compliance with therapeutic recommendations in chronic diseases, such as ulcerative coli tis, is of great importance, especially during remission. According to the WHO report, in this group of patients, recommendations are followed in only around 50%. The work discusses and defines the basic concepts and strategies for compliance with recommendations in chronic diseases. In addition, the focus is on the role of the long-term use of mesalazine in the maintenance therapy of ulcerative coli tis and the need to develop therapeutic strategies and educate this group of patients.

Rola liposomalnej amfoterycyny B w leczeniu inwazyjnych chorób grzybiczych u chorych na nowotwory hematologiczne

The role of liposomal amphotericin B in the treatment of invasive fungal disease in patients with haematologic neoplasms

Anna Czyż, Patrycja Mensah-Glanowska

Zakażenia XXI wieku 2019;2(1):7–13

Invasive fungal disease is a frequent, life-threatening complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHCT) and intensive chemotherapy for acute leukaemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Liposomal amphotericin B, a drug with a broad spectrum of fungicidal activity, is applicable both in the empiric treatment of febrile neutropenia, as well as in the targeted treatment of invasive aspergillosis and candidiasis or rare fungal infections caused by other molds, primarily Mucorales and Fusarium. To illustrate the role of liposomal amphotericin B in the treatment of invasive fungal diseases, we present two case reports of patients subjected to alloHCT, the first one with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, and the other with systemic candidiasis. Discussion of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in both cases was supplemented with current recommendations regarding the use of liposomal amphotericin B in the treatment of systemic fungal infections.

Echinokandyny – czy stosowanie leków generycznych jest bezpieczne?

Echinocandins – Is the use of generic drugs safe?

Daniel Jakubik, Marek Postuła

Zakażenia XXI wieku 2019;2(1):15–19

Echinocandins have a documented role in the treatment and prevention of invasive fungal infections. They are considered one of the best-tolerated and safe classes of antifungal drugs. Recently, generic equivalents of original echinocandin medicines have appeared on the pharmaceutical market. Despite widespread use in health care and strict regulatory standards, general acceptance of substitution of the original medicines with their counterpartsremains a heated debate. Many studies have shown that this replacement adversely affects the prognosis and increases the risk of side effects. Due to the lack of studies analyzing the impact on the prognosis and efficacy of treatment with the generic forms of echinocandins, the assessment of the safety profile of these drugs is difficult.

Znaczenie i ocena jakości życia osób żyjących z HIV (HRQoL), zależnej od zdrowia

The importance and the assessment of Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in people living with HIV

Justyna Słonka, Ewa Siewaszewicz, Iwona Hildebrandt

Zakażenia XXI wieku 2019;2(1):21–27

The UNAIDS Fast-Track approach to end AIDS epidemic by 2020, assumes 90% of people living with HIV know their status, 90% of them are accessing treatment and 90% of those receiving treatment have suppressed viral loads (90-90-90).However, there are no specific targets for people living with HIV who have already met these criteria. Therefore, adding the fourth „90” is being proposed: to ensure that 90% of people with virally suppressed will present a good health related quality of life. Hundreds oftools have been developed recently to assess the health-related quality of life (HRQoL), giving the opportunity to choose the disease-specific instrument. The PROs (Patient related outcomes) are gaining an importance covering a whole range of potential measurements based on general and specific questionnaires.Their application in everyday practice translates into improvement of the quality of healthcare, improves communication between the physician and the patient, helps to adapt treatment plansto meet the patient’s preferences and needs. The purpose of this article is to explain the concepts related to quality of life, review the available, most commonly used HRQoLtools in people living with HIV, and provide evidence for the utility of PROs in everyday clinical practice.

Tlen singletowy w walce z drobnoustrojami. Pierwsze praktyczne zastosowania w rękawicach medycznych

Singlet Oxygen in fight against microbials. First practical application in medical gloves

Sławomir Gondek

Zakażenia XXI wieku 2019;2(1):29–31

The hands of medical personnel are one of the main potential vectors of pathogenic microorganisms transmission within health care facilities. It was possible to develop a substance that, embedded in the structure of the material, in contact with visible light causes the release of singlet oxygen from the surface of the glove. Singlet oxygen in contact with microbes causes damage to the cell membrane and genetic material of bacteria.

Profilaktyka zakażeń szpitalnych. Syzyfowa praca pielęgniarki epidemiologicznej

Prevention of nosocomial infections. Sisyphean work of an epidemiological nurse

Katarzyna Sołtys-Bolibrzuch

Zakażenia XXI wieku 2019;2(1):33–39

Hospital accuired infections (HAI) are connected with all medical procedures. In Poland, the frequency of financial claims (related to HAI) definitely increases each year. The problem of prophylaxis of HAI is currently developed by scientific societies and associations. They want to develop standards in the prevention of infections based on current medical knowledge. The goal is to find a universal solution that will significantly reduce the incidence of HAI. In the hospital accuired infection prevention have been created various types of procedures, standards, instructions. They were based on experience, existing literature, ongoing knowledge on training, conferences and applicable law in Poland. In order to ensure epidemiological safety it is necessary to establish and follow uniform procedures. However implementing new recommendations, should consider by following all the rules of infection prevention in Poland. Deviations in disinfection and decontamination may result in uncontrolled spread of infections, including those caused by multi-drug resistant strains. This is a simple way to difficult to control epidemics, which we can not limit in a short time.

Endotoksyny i pirogeny a bezpieczeństwo użytkowania rękawic w środowisku szpitalnym

Endotoxins and pyrogens in the context of the use of protective gloves in hospital environment

Anna Różańska

Zakażenia XXI wieku 2019;2(1):41–46

Ensuring patient safety in relation to exposure to biological agents during diagnostic and therapeutic procedures requires compliance with the rules of isolation specific to a particular patient and performed activities. Procedures related to exposure to blood and body fluids require the use of protective gloves – single use, non-sterile ones in most situations, and sterile gloves during surgical operations. Gloves approved for use must meet specific requirements for resistance to physical and chemical agents and protection against biological agents – microbes, but also endotoxins. Endotoxin – or LPS-lipopolysaccharide, an integral component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, is classified as a typical pyrogenic agent. Its presence in the human body in certain situations can lead to various adverse effects, including even septic shock. Its common occurrence in the human environment and high resistance to physical factors requires from the manufacturers of medical devices, including sterile gloves, preservation and control of the environment at every stage of production.

Korzystne zmiany w Programie Szczepień Ochronnych w 2019 roku – priorytety dalszych koniecznych zmian

Mandatory immunization program for 2019 – beneficial changes – priorities for further change

Ewa Bernatowska, Teresa Jackowska

Zakażenia XXI wieku 2019;2(1):47–50

BCG vaccination shortly after birth before leaving neonatal unit is on the vaccination schedules for 2019. Moreover, all premature infants, born before pregnancy week 37 are reclassified again to the high-risk group of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD) and are subjected to the mandatory immunization program in 2019. The National Immunization Program has been changed in the face of the threats of infectious diseases. Measles can obtain record-high incidence in Europe, also in Poland, since 2019. From the beginning of 2019, the second dose of MMR vaccine is scheduled for children 6 years old. Urgent priorities for further change are the mandatory combination vaccines in children up to 2 years of age. The Paediatric Group of Experts of the Immunization Program recommends mandatory vaccinations with PCV13 vaccine in immunocompromised children at risk of PID of 6 to 19 years of age and vaccinations against influenza in all children at risk up to 5 years of age.




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